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In January 2002, more than 60 countries and 20 international organisations participated in the Afghanistan Recovery and Reconstruction Conference in Tokyo, pledging several billion US dollars in development assistance. On 08 July 2012, a decade after the first Tokyo Conference, governments, international organisations and others will re-convene in that same city to pledge assistance to Afghanistan for the remainder of the transition process and beyond 2014. This page features the latest developments and outcomes pertaining to  the Tokyo Conference and research related to the transition in Afghanistan.


19-JUL-13. Former top U.S. commander in Afghanistan cautions against 'zero option'. The former commander of U.S. and international forces in Afghanistan, retired General John Allen, cautioned against leaving no US troops in Afghanistan after 2014, the so-called “zero option”, reports CNN. Allen said that although the Afghan army has made great gains, Afghan leaders realize its forces are not fully trained and need a US presence beyond next year. Allen said that he was never asked to evaluate a "zero option" but added that if that option is now considered because of the strained US relationship with Afghan President Hamid Karzai.
The Washington Post
17-JUL-13. Flow of U.S. military gear across Afghan borders halts amid dispute. A fresh dispute between the Afghan and US authorities over customs procedures has halted the withdrawal and the flow of US military equipment being shipped out of the country, say US military officials to The Washington Post. Consequently, the US military are now forced to rely more heavily on air transport, which has dramatically increased the cost of the drawdown.  The Afghan government is demanding that the U.S. military pay USD 1,000 for each shipping container leaving the country that does not have a corresponding, validated customs form. The Afghan customs agency says the American military need to pay USD 70 million in fines. If left unresolved, the disagreement could inflate the price tag of the U.S. military drawdown by hundreds of millions, if not billions, of dollars because of the higher cost of shipping by air, adds The Washington Post. The Afghan demand for payment is part of a broader dispute over Kabul’s authority to tax US entities working in Afghanistan. As the war economy starts to deflate, the government is increasingly insisting that U.S. defense contractors pay business taxes and fines for a range of alleged violations, highlights The Washington Post. In addition, the latest fight has added a new irritant to negotiations over a bilateral security agreement that will address the possibility of a residual U.S. military force in Afghanistan after 2014. Washington and Kabul remain at odds over several details of the security deal, including the types of taxes and customs fees that would be imposed on the force and its contractors. Regarding the drawdown pace, although the relation between the USA and Pakistan has improved, the tide has shifted yet again in the recent weeks. A Pentagon spokesman said that during the most recent thirty-day period, only 36 percent of equipment was leaving by land via the Pakistani land corridors.
Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty (RFE/RL)
17-JUL-13. Brother Of Afghan National Security Adviser Shot Dead. Ahmad Wali Jaan, the brother of Afghanistan's national security adviser and ex-Foreign Affairs Minister, Rangin Dadfar Spanta, has been shot dead in western province of Herat by unknown gunmen, writes Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). No group has so far claimed responsibility for the attack. Wali was a public prosecutor in Karukh, which is close to Afghanistan's western border with Iran.
Bakhtar News
16-JUL-13. “Insurgent lack the Capacity to face the Afghan Forces”: Afghan MoD. Afghan Defense Ministry (MoD) spokesman General Zahir Azimi stated in a joint press conference with the ISAF and NATO civil sector spokesmen that no Afghan area had been retaken by the insurgency after ISAF had handed over security to the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), writes Bakhtar News. He further added that the ANSF has the ability to foil and counter the insurgent attacks despite the discrepancies that the ANSF have been facing this year. According to General Azimi, those results show that the insurgency lacks the ability to face the ANSF notwithstanding the pending withdrawal of the international coalition. The General also said that the military equipment delivery process to the ANSF was under way although it requires more time than initially planned.
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Afghanistan from 2012-2014: Is a Successful Transition Possible? (Center for Strategic and International Studies).  This report, released in June 2012, states that success in Afghanistan will require major improvements in the depth and quality of planning and analysis, as well as in the transparency, credibility, and integrity of reporting by the US government, allied government, ISAF, and international institutions.

Afghanistan in Transition: Looking Beyond 2014 (World Bank). This study, released in May 2012, explores impacts of the international forces withdrawal on Afghanistan's economic and development fabric. The report marks the culmination of the first of a set of World Bank's studies examinining different aspects of Transition in Afghanistan.

Toward a Self-Sustaining Afghanistan: An Economic Transition Strategy (The Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan). This document puts forward the Afghan government's analysis of the anticipated economic impact of transition and its strategy to adress the implications.

Talking About Talks: Toward a Political Settlement in Afghanistan (International Crisis Group)
This report addresses key political and security challenges facing Afghanistan and examines prospects for achieving a negotiated political settlement. It analyses the Afghanistan Peace and Reintegration Programme and Afghanistan's relations with external powers.

Afghanistan Transition: Elevating the Diplomatic Components of the Transition Strategy at the Chicago NATO Summit and Beyond (American Progress). This document highlights the political and military components of the current transition strategy in Afghanistan and outlines the multiple crises facing the Afghan government whcih the authors say should be addressed. It concludes that the strategy requires more focus on political dimensions.

Afghanistan 2012: The beginning of the end game (Institute for Social Policy and Understanding). This policy brief addresses possible scenarious that may transpire after full security responsibility has been transitioned to the Afghan National Security Forces. It also examines a variety of arguments pertinent to the engagement in Afghanistan.  

Beating a Retreat: Prospects for the Transition Process in Afghanistan (Afghanistan Analysts Network). This report, based on author's field research in Kabul, analyses objectives and challenges of the ongoing transition process in Afghanistan. The report concludes that the transition process is facing challenges in meeting its objectives.

Paying for Afghanistan's Security Forces during Transition: Issues for Chicago and Beyond (United States Institute of Peace). This policy brief examines the cost and funding of the Afghanistan National Security Force (ANSF) during transition and beyond 2014. It offers recommendations and identifies areas for improvement.


Afghanistan Civil Society Forum

Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission

Afghanistan Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Afghanistan Research & Evaluation Unit

Afghan Women's Network

Asia Foundation - Afghanistan

Congressional Research Service

German Government

International Crisis Group

International Security Assistance Force (NATO)



United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan

United States Insitute of Peace

US-Afghan Women's Council

United States Institute of Peace




For further information

regarding the July 2012

Tokyo Conference on

Afghanistan, click here

to download the CFC's

seven-page report

on the event



Chicago Summit Declaration
The NATO Chicago Summit, 20-21 May 2012

Bonn Conference Communiqué
The Second International Conference on Afghanistan, 05 December 2011

The Council of the European Union Conclusions on Afghanistan
The 3124th Foreign Affairs Council Meeting, 14 November 2011

Istanbul Process on Regional Security and Cooperation For a Secure and Stable Afghanistan
The Istanbul Conference for Afghanistan, 02 November 2011

Declaration by NATO and the GIRoA on an Enduring Partnership
The Lisbon NATO Summit,
19-20 November 2010

Kabul Conference Communiqué
The Kabul International Conference on Afghanistan, 20 July 2010

London Conference Communiqué
The London Conference: Afghan Leadership, Regional Cooperation, International Partnership, 28 January 2010

Declaration of the Special Conference on Afghanistan convened under the auspices of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization
Moscow Special Conference on Afghanistan, 27 March 2009

Declaration of the International Conference in Support of Afghanistan
Paris International Conference on Afghanistan, 12 June 2008

Joint Recommendations from the Rome Conference
Rome Conference on the Rule of Law in Afghanistan, 02-03 July 2007

The Afghanistan Compact
The London Conference on Afghanistan, 31 January - 01 February 2006

Berlin Declaration
International Afghanistan Conference in Berlin, 31 March - 01 April 2004

Co-chairs' Summary of Conclusions of the Tokyo Conference
The Tokyo International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan, 21-22 January 2002

Bonn Agreement
First International Bonn Conference on Afghanistan, December 2001


Afghanistan Peace & Reintegration Volume
by the Afghanistan Team

Corruption & Anti-Corruption Issues in
by the Afghanistan Team